Diagnosing Knee Osteoarthritis: Causes and Treatments

Written by Mr Bilal Barkatali

Whether seeking non-invasive treatments or considering knee replacement surgery, understanding the causes and available interventions is crucial in addressing knee osteoarthritis.

Knee Osteoarthritis


Knee osteoarthritis is a prevalent condition that affects a large number of individuals worldwide. This degenerative joint disease can cause pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, significantly impacting one's quality of life. In this article, we will delve into the causes of knee osteoarthritis and explore various treatment options available to manage its symptoms. Whether seeking non-invasive treatments or considering knee replacement surgery, understanding the underlying causes and available interventions is crucial in effectively addressing knee osteoarthritis.

What Is Osteoarthritis? 

Osteoarthritis is a chronic joint condition characterized by the degeneration of cartilage, the protective tissue that cushions the ends of bones. As cartilage deteriorates, the bones can rub against each other, leading to pain, inflammation, and loss of joint function. While osteoarthritis can affect various joints in the body, it is particularly common in weight-bearing joints like the knees. Age, genetics, obesity, joint injuries, and joint misalignment are among the primary factors contributing to knee osteoarthritis development.

What Can Cause Knee Osteoarthritis? 

  1. Age: Advanced age is a significant risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. As we age, the cartilage naturally undergoes wear and tear, making it more susceptible to damage and degeneration.
  2. Genetics: Genetic factors play a role in the development of knee osteoarthritis. Certain gene variations can increase an individual's susceptibility to the condition, although additional research is necessary to understand the full extent of genetic influence.
  3. Obesity: Excess weight stresses the knee joints, accelerating cartilage breakdown. Maintaining a healthy weight is essential in managing knee osteoarthritis and reducing symptoms.
  4. Joint Injuries: Previous knee injuries, such as ligament tears or fractures, can predispose individuals to knee osteoarthritis later in life. The trauma from these injuries can disrupt the normal structure and function of the knee joint.
  5. Joint Misalignment: Abnormalities in the alignment or structure of the knee joint can lead to uneven weight distribution, causing increased pressure on specific areas of the joint. Over time, this can contribute to the development of osteoarthritis.

How Do I Know If My Knee Pain Is Osteoarthritis? 

Diagnosing knee osteoarthritis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests. A healthcare professional will assess your symptoms, conduct a physical examination of the knee joint, and may order X-rays, MRI scans, or joint fluid analysis to confirm the diagnosis.

Common symptoms of knee osteoarthritis include:

  • Pain, especially during movement or weight-bearing activities.
  • Stiffness and reduced range of motion in the knee joint.
  • Swelling and tenderness in the affected area.
  • A sensation of grating or clicking in the knee during movement.

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing persistent knee pain or if your symptoms are significantly impacting your daily activities. An accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment decisions.

What Is the Best Treatment for Osteoarthritis of the Knee? 

The treatment approach for knee osteoarthritis depends on the severity of symptoms and individual circumstances. The treatment options can be divided into A. Conservative measures; B. Injections; C Surgical options.

Conservative measures:

  1. Lifestyle Modifications: Making lifestyle changes, such as maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in low-impact exercises, and avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms, can significantly improve knee osteoarthritis.
  2. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help manage pain and reduce inflammation. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe stronger pain medications or inject corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid into the knee joint for relief.
  3. Physiotherapy: A physiotherapist can develop a personalized exercise program to strengthen the muscles around the knee joint, improve flexibility, and enhance joint stability. Physiotherapy includes other modalities like heat or cold therapy, ultrasound, or electrical stimulation.
  4. Assistive Devices: Using assistive devices such as knee braces or orthotic shoe inserts can provide support, reduce pain, and improve stability while walking or engaging in physical activities.


  1. Steroid injections. These are helpful if there is swelling and inflammation as well as significant degeneration. We only use steroids in cases where there isn’t much cartilage left to preserve, as steroids, unfortunately accelerate the arthritic process.
  2. Hyaluronic acid / HA (Ostenil plus). HA is great in cases of early OA and provides lubrication and nourishment to the cartilage. It is not biologically active and doesn’t affect the progression of Osteoarthritis.
  3. PRP (platelet-rich plasma) – Platelets are isolated from your blood and injected into the joint. This is a great joint preservation treatment as the platelets release growth factors and help to decelerate osteoarthritis, as well as reduce pain and inflammation. This is great in early to moderate OA.
  4. Arthrosamid – this is a new treatment designed to help reduce the pain of OA. This is a synthetic hydrogel that is injected into the joint and binds to the synovial lining permanently and reduces pain. This is not curative and is a very new treatment. It appears useful in cases where patients may not be fit enough to undergo surgery.


Invasive Treatments: Surgical interventions may be considered when conservative measures are ineffective.

In severe cases, knee replacement surgery may be necessary to replace the damaged joint with a prosthetic implant. More information on knee replacement and robotic knee replacement is available.


Knee osteoarthritis is a common condition that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. By understanding the causes and available treatments, individuals can take proactive steps to manage their symptoms and improve joint function. From lifestyle modifications to medication and physical therapy, various approaches can provide relief and slow down the progression of knee osteoarthritis. Consulting with a healthcare professional is essential to receive an accurate diagnosis and develop an effective treatment plan tailored to individual needs.

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